Grammar

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Similarities

We have already seen how noun clauses and adjective clauses have a lot in common. In this lesson, I'd like to point out a few more similarities.

For both types of clauses:

  1. You can often leave out the relative pronoun, as long as the meaning of the sentence is clear.

I think [that] he is a liar.

noun clause

I washed the pants [that] I wore yesterday.

adjective clause

 

  1. The word order is sometimes inverted. (That is, the end of the clause can sometimes come first, as if Yoda were saying it).

You must choose which flavor of ice cream you want.

noun clause

O
which flavor
S
you
V
want

Pizza, which most people love, is not healthy.

adjective clause

O
pizza
S
people
V
love

 

  1. Who and whoever are used as subjects, while whom and whomever are used as objects.

I shot the man who stole my wife.

"who" is the subject of the adjective clause.

I shot the man whom my wife loves.

"whom" is the object of the adjective clause.

I will kiss whoever wins the race.

"whoever" is the subject of the noun clause.

I will kiss whomever I want.

"whomever" is the object of the noun clause.

 

  1. They are often embedded into a larger sentence. (A noun clause can replace any noun, while an adjective clause can describe any noun).
Noun Clauses that replace the . . .

What I say is true.

subject

Daria said that she was going to be late.

direct object

I will tellĀ whoever will listen my frightening story.

indirect object

Josie is not interested in whatever Kyle says.

object of a preposition

Michael's excuse was that he forgot to set his alarm.

complement

Adjective Clauses that describe the . . .

Fruit that is grown organically is expensive.

subject

Charlie has a friend whose daughter lives in China.

direct object

They gave the girl who won the contest a valuable prize.

indirect object

I slept on the bed that we bought yesterday.

object of a preposition

These are the students who are going.

complement

 

Instructions for the Quiz

Identify the type of subordinate clause.

Quiz