Grammar 1

 

Glue Words

As mentioned in the previous lesson, there are three categories of glue words:

This lesson will give you an overview of these categories. Read through it, but don't try to memorize anything just yet.

Prepositions

Prepositions are words which typically describe the relationship between two nouns.

In each of these cases, the preposition describes the relationship between the book and the table.

However, not all prepositions work this way. In fact, there are so many "weird" or exceptional prepositions that frankly, you just need to memorize them.

Here is a complete list of the prepositions.

Prepositions
  • about
  • above
  • according to
  • across
  • after*
  • against
  • along
  • along with
  • among
  • apart from
  • around
  • as*
  • as for
  • at
  • because of
  • before*
  • behind
  • below
  • beneath

  • beside
  • between
  • beyond
  • but* (except)
  • by
  • by means of
  • concerning
  • despite
  • down
  • during
  • except
  • except for
  • excepting
  • for
  • from
  • in
  • in addition to
  • in back of
  • in case of
  • in front of
  • in place of
  • inside
  • in spite of
  • instead of
  • into
  • like
  • near
  • next
  • next to
  • of
  • off
  • on
  • onto
  • on top of
  • out
  • out of
  • outside
  • over
  • past

  • regarding
  • round
  • since*
  • through
  • throughout
  • till*
  • to
  • toward
  • under
  • underneath
  • unlike
  • until*
  • up
  • upon
  • up to
  • with
  • within
  • without

There's a trick that's somewhat useful when learning to recognize prepositions. It's this sentence:

If a word fits into the blank (and the sentence makes sense), the word is probably a preposition. Try it with some of the prepositions in the table above. You'll notice that it works much of the time, though by no means all of the time.

Coordinating Conjunctions

There are only seven coordinating conjunctions. They are sometimes called "fanboys", because fanboys is a mnemonic device (memory trick) that can help you remember what they are:

Image result for fanboys'

Fanboys join words, phrases, and clauses. By far the most common fanboys are and, but, and so. (You can almost forget the rest). Here are all of the fanboys, listed in "fanboy" order:

Coordinating Conjunctions (Fanboys)
  • for*
  • and 
  • nor
  • but*
  • or
  • yet
  • so
  • (then)

Subordinating Conjunctions

Subordinating conjunctions are used to join the two parts of a complex sentence. Here are some examples, with the subordinating conjunction highlighted in yellow:

Here is a complete list of the subordinating conjunctions:

Subordinating Conjunctions
  • after*
  • although
  • as*
  • as far as
  • as though
  • because
  • before*
  • even if
  • even though
  • if
  • inasmuch as
  • in case (that)
  • in order (that)
  • insofar as
  • in that
  • lest
  • no matter how
  • now that
  • once
  • only if
  • provided (that)
  • since*
  • supposing that
  • than
  • though

 

  • till*
  • unless
  • until*
  • when
  • whenever
  • where
  • wherever
  • whereas
  • whether or not
  • while

 


There's a trick that's somewhat useful when learning to recognize conjunctions. It's this sentence:

If a word fits into the blank (and the sentence makes sense), the word is probably a conjunction. Of course, that still leaves two possibilities: It could be a coordinating conjunction (fanboy), or it could a subordinating conjunction.

If the word fits in the sentence above—but it's not one of the seven fanboys—then it's very likely a subordinating conjunction.

Try it with some of the subordinating conjunctions in the table above. You'll notice that this trick works much of the time, though by no means all of the time.

Instructions for the Quiz

Answer the questions.

Quiz