Country Reports


Clean Up Your Signal Phrases

Use the following checklist to clean up your signal phrases.


Double-check your signal phrases. Remember, each piece of evidence you cite should be introduced by a signal phrase.

  • Rarely, you can leave out the signal phrase if you are only citing a statistic or a short phrase.
  • If your evidence is a direct quote that consists of at least one full sentence, then you MUST use a signal phrase.
    • A direct quote is when you use someone else's exact words.

Double-check to make sure that you have followed the "Name Rule".

  • The first time you introduce a source, introduce them by their full name (First Last), followed (or preceded) by an appositive which gives the reader some idea of who they are.
  • Thereafter, every time you use that person's name, use only their last name (and leave out the appositive).

Are you happy with your transitions? Remember, the "big four" are:

  • According to,
  • In fact,
  • For example,
  • In the words of . . .

Did you use the appropriate one? Would another be more appropriate?


Congratulations! You're done with this lesson.